History of British social movements Part 3

This is the third part of a series of posts on the history of social movements in Britain. It includes 2 social movements: environment movement and feminist/women movement. See a previous post that explains what social movements are.

Here is a list of the social movements covered in this series so far.

Part 1: anti-austerity movement; alter/anti-globalization (Global Justice, anti-capitalist Movement); anti-austerity movement: anti-racist movements; anti-fascists; anti-slavery/abolition Movement

Part 2: Community movements; Disability Movement

Environmental Movement, Green Movement

A lot has been written about the waves and phases of the environmental movement. [1] I’m going to draw on and adapt/add to Peter Rawcliffe’s four phases from ‘Environmental Pressure Groups in Transition’ [2] to divide the British environmental movement into six phases

  1. the conservation phase, 1880s – 1960s
  2. the ecological phase/emergence of the modern environmental movement, 1960s – 1970s
  3. the growth of the modern environmental movement, 1980 -1990s
  4. the direct action phase, 1990s
  5. the emergence of the climate movement, 2000s
  6. large scale climate civil disobedience, 2010s -2020s

The environmental movement is a big, broad social movement, with many movements making it up. So this section on the environmental movement is long.

Here is a history of environmentalism going back 5,000 years. Here is a mapping of the UK climate movement from 2022.

1. the conservation phase 1880s – 1960s

Georgia Cavanagh gives a summary of this phase here. She describes how there was a focus on environmental preservation and stewardship rather than radical change. The Open Space Movement

had a middle-class membership and some claimed that nature only belonged to ‘the enlightened middle class’. Cavanagh described how “When the lower classes were involved in activism, it was often for distinctly different purposes, such as ‘land nationalisation, taxation of unearned increment, and land tenure reform’, as opposed to the more cerebral concept of ‘preservationism’.”

One of the first environmental groups in the world was the Commons Preservation Society was formed in 1865, it was finally renamed the Open Spaces Society in 1982. [3] Others include: the National Trust was founded in 1895 for heritage conservation; the RSPB was founded in 1889; the Garden City Association 1899, now called the Town and Country Planning Association; the Society for the Promotion of Nature Reserves, later the Wildlife Trusts from 1912; the Council for the Preservation of Rural England was formed in 1926, now the CPRE; the Countryside Charity; the Pedestrians’ Association in 1929, now Living Streets; and the Ramblers’ Association in 1935.

Animal welfare groups that formed in the 1800s including the Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals in 1824; the National Anti-Vivisection Society in 1875; the British Union for the abolition of vivisection was founded in 1898, now called the Cruelty Free International. This article gives a summary of the campaign for animal welfare in the 1800s.

Following the second world war, the 1949 National Parks and Access to the Countryside Act “designated significant swathes of the countryside as national parks and protected areas of natural beauty.” This led to increased support for organisations such as the National Trust. The Soil Association was formed in 1946. The Council for Nature (now the Council for Nature Conservation and the Countryside) created a Conservation Corps for young environmental volunteers in 1959. [4] The Conservation Corps was renamed the British Trust for Conservation Volunteers (BTCV) in 1970 and rebranded again in 2012 to The Conservation Volunteers. The Conservation Society was formed in 1966.

2. the ecological phase/emergence of modern environmental movement 1960s – 1970s

In the 1960s there was a shift in focus from conservation to ecology as a major concern. It also saw the use of moderate forms of direct action.

Mark Wilson’s 2014 thesis gives a detailed analysis of this shift in focus. He argues this was due to “an incremental process as a series of events triggered new responses to the environment in the post-war period. Those environmental ideas which developed, then increasingly became more radical and inclusive as the decades progressed.” [5]

Georgia Cavanagh describes how “Environmentalism thrived during the 1960s, which was a period of widespread dissidence and criticism of social norms. Radical environmentalism became more popular and was supported by mounting scientific evidence of environmental degradation, as well as popular outspoken individuals. Whilst mainstream conservationism still existed, the character of the overall movement became more disparate and ideologically diverse.”

A common point of reference for the shift was the publication of ‘Silent Spring’ by Rachel Carson in 1962. Paul Byrne [6] and Georgia Cavanagh both reference this as important. Mark Wilson in his 2014 thesis states that “the book’s impact in Britain was different than that which it had in the United States for one primary reason – that environmental ideas it promoted were already in use in Britain and so Carson’s work was not the shock doctrine which is proved to be elsewhere” [7]

Byrne also describes a cultural shift in the late 1960s. The student movement and other libertarian movements combined the ecological concerns with their criticisms of materialist industrial society and conventional centralised politics. [8]

The 1960s saw World Wildlife Fund set up internationally in 1961, here is a history and its UK offices. The student group Third World First was formed in 1969 and rebranded to People and Planet in 1998.

The key organisations founded in the 1970s was Friends of the Earth (FoE) in1971 and Greenpeace in 1977. See Greenpeace’s victories and how they create change. Friends of the Earth focuses on non-violent legal actions and has hundreds of local groups and a decentralised membership structure. Greenpeace focuses on direct action, legal and illegal; and has a centralised organisational structure. [9] The Green Party was formed in 1973, read a short history here. It was originally called the People Party, renamed the Ecology Party in 1975, then changed to the Green Party in 1985.

Two other organisations set up in the 1970s are the Woodland Trust and Sustrans: “the Woodland Trust, was an altogether more conventional organisation; Sustrans, best known for its promotion of cycle paths, was another; interestingly, and a foretaste of things to come, neither was concerned to involve supporters in their governance.” [10]

This website gives a history of the green movement between 1972-89. Two active organisations against cars and in favour of public transport were Save Our City from Environmental Mess and Transport 2000. [11]

3. the growth of the modern environmental movement 1980 -1990s

Christopher Rootes describes the rapid growth in environmental NGOs (ENGOs) in the 1980s:

“The 1970s introduced a period of dramatic growth in the numbers of ENGOs, their members and supporters. Between 1971 and 1981, membership of the largest and longest established organisations, National Trust and RSPB, grew fourfold; between 1981 and 1991, it doubled again. During the 1980s, however, the most spectacular growth occurred in the newest and most activist organisations, FoE and Greenpeace. Although they remained small by comparison with older conservation organisations, from the late 1980s, when they began to use direct mailing techniques, their numbers surged.

In addition to their high profile anti-nuclear campaigns, FoE and Greenpeace launched major campaigns on nature protection issues. Despite the reservations of some traditional conservation organisations about their campaigning, FoE and Greenpeace were included in renewed efforts at coordination. Frustrated by the weakness of the Nature Conservancy, and keen to escape the straitjacket of charitable status, ENGOs as diverse as RSPB, RSNC, WWF, FoE and Greenpeace in 1980 collaborated to form Wildlife Link to coordinate their activities. With direct access to civil servants and regular meetings with ministers, Wildlife Link greatly increased the political influence of ENGOs. Even though conservation organisations were wary of alienating supporters they assumed to be socially and politically conservative, they were never-the-less influenced by the rise of the new campaigning organisations, and gradually came to see the value of high profile public campaigns as adjuncts to more traditional lobbying.

The 1980s was a decade of renewed organisational innovation. Indeed, more than one-third of the ENGOs existing at the end of the twentieth century were established in that decade alone, the newcomers including the Whale and Dolphin Conservation Society, Marine Conservation Society, Environmental Investigation Agency, Pond Conservation, Plantlife, Froglife and the Herpetological Conservation Trust.” [12]

Other organisations established in this phase are Waste Watch in 1987, Surfers Against Sewage in

1990, Population Matters in 1991, Forum for the Future in 1996.

The dataset for Political protests in Britain, 1985-2019, lists several environmental protests between 1985-2019.

4. the direct action phase 1990s

Adam Lent describes how the end of the 1980s saw the combination in Britain of three phenomena: rave culture, the anti-poll tax movement and a significant increase in concern for environmental destruction. “Out of these, a new mobilisation developed which combined the rebellious, ‘do-it-yourself’ festival spirit of illegal raving, the grassroots democratic politics and direct action of the anti-poll tax movement, and the ecocentric values of green consciousness to create the most significant movement of the 1990s in Britain. This mobilisation was radical environmentalism.” [13]

Christopher Rootes explains the development of radical environmentalism in the early 1990s:

“The most striking innovation of the decade was the emergence, from 1991, of a new generation of environmental ‘disorganisations’. Earth First! and its urban offshoot, Reclaim the Streets, were essentially banners under which a younger generation of activists, to whom FoE and Greenpeace appeared bureaucratic and timid, might take direct action proportionate to what they perceived to be the urgency of environmental issues. No less concerned than their predecessors with protecting nature, they were more radically critical of capitalist consumerism and more committed to grassroots participation in direct action. Early actions targeting the importation of rain- forest timber were soon succeeded by a focus upon protests against roadbuilding, loosely networked by an ad hoc campaign coalition, ALARM.

These ‘disorganisations’ deliberately avoided establishing themselves as formal organisations that might be vulnerable to the kinds of legal sanctions that were to force the withdrawal of FoE from direct action against the building of the M3 through Twyford Down, and Greenpeace from action against BP’s oil exploration in the North Sea. But just as the popularity and campaigning successes of FoE and Greenpeace had enhanced older ENGOs’ opportunities for successful lobbying, so the ‘radical flank’ effect created by the new radicals provided ENGOs with increased political leverage; the polite representations of ‘reasonable’ ENGOs were more visible and audible in the corridors of power when radical activists were in the streets loudly demanding action.” [14]

Lent describes the decentralised nature of Earth First! in the UK, any local group could be launched and take actions using the name without approval as long as they broadly agreed with its aims, methods and principles. This was a commitment to defend the environment and reject violence but did not state its position on damage to property. In 1992-93 then was the Twyford Down / Dongas road protest, the 1993-4 Claremont Road/M11 link road protest by Reclaim the Streets and the 1996 Newbury Road protest. Here is a list of road protests. [15]

Georgia Cavanagh describes how the mainstream environmental movement saw Earth First!ers as ‘ecoterrorists’. She describes how these radical activities gain media attention and likely encouraged bolder actions by the mainstream.

Here is a summary of the environmental direct action in the United Kingdom from the 1990s to 2020.

The animal rights movement began in the 1970s, here is an early history. There were protests in the south coast towns of Shoreham, Brightlingsea and Dover in the 1990s over the transportation of livestock through the towns. Here is a round-up of the animal rights groups in 2004.

Campaigning against genetically modified (GM) foods began in the late 1990s. Here and here are histories of the movement. GMWatch was founded in 1998 to provide “the public with the latest news and comment on genetically modified (GMO) foods and crops and their associated pesticides.”

There was anti-GM actions: a Greenpeace action in 2004, a protest in London in 2011, a Greenpeace action in 2012. Here is a report on the GM-free movement in Europe.

GeneWatch UK investigates “how genetic science and technologies will impact on our food, health, agriculture, environment and society.” The Soil Association campaigns against GM.

There were also several acts of eco-sabotage starting in the 1990s. There was electrical network sabotage Nottingham area in May 2016.

5. the emergence of the climate movement 2000s

The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) started meeting annually in 1995 at the Conference of the Parties (COP). There were protests at these global events. There was a demonstration and protest at the Hague in 2000. Cop 15 in Copenhagen in 2009 was the first to get significant attention with world leaders attending and large scale protests. COP 21 in Paris in 2015 also got a lot of attention and protests. COP 26 was in Glasgow in 2021 with a large demonstration.

Rising Tide UK was formed in 2000 to carry out direct action against the root causes of climate change, and to work towards a fossil fuel-free future. [16] The Stop Esso campaign took place during the 2000s, coordinated by Greenpeace, Friends of the Earth and People and Planet. It encouraged the boycotting of the oil company Esso (ExxonMobil in the US), due to the damage it caused to the environment. From 2005, the Campaign Against Climate Change organised annual demonstrations in London, plus other protests throughout the year. The Stop Climate Chaos Coalition was formed in 2005 and organised several demonstrations and campaigns in the 2000s. It has Scottish and Welsh sister organisations. The Stop Climate Chaos Coalition looks to now be called the Climate Coalition, with over 140 member organisations. The Transition Towns movement was formed in 2006/7 in Devon to tackle climate change and peak oil at the community level and spread around the UK and the world.

AirportWatch was formed in 2000 and is “an umbrella movement networking the interested environmental organisations, airport community groups, and individuals opposed to unsustainable aviation expansion, and its damaging environmental effects, including climate change, noise and air pollution.”

Plane Stupid was formed in 2005 to end airport expansion, here is a list of protests between 2008 – 2015. Grow Heathrow is a land squat and community growing project near to and in opposition to the planned third running at Heathrow Airport. Here and here are reports on two actions at Heathrow airport in 2016. Here is a history from 2017 and some background on the controversial new development. Farnborough Airport entrances were blocked by protesters in 2021.

The Camps for Climate Action are campaign gatherings (similar to peace camps) that took place to “draw attention to, and act as a base for direct action against, major carbon emitters, as well as to develop ways to create a zero-carbon society. Camps are run on broadly anarchist principles – free to attend, supported by donations and with input from everyone in the community for the day-to-day operation of the camp. Initiated in the UK, camps have taken place in England at Drax power station, Heathrow Airport, Kingsnorth power station in Kent, the City of London and The Royal Bank of Scotland Headquarters, near Edinburgh.”

There is also the anti biofuels movement, active since about 2007, of which Biofuelwatch has been the leading organisation. Here and here are pages listing protests and campaigns going back to 2007.

Climate Rush was active from 2008 to 2010 and organise several protests to raise awareness about climate change.

6. large scale climate civil disobedience 2010s -2020s

The 2010s saw increased support for ‘green jobs’ and the Green New Deal. The Green Jobs Alliance was formed in 2010. Green New Deal UK was formed in 2019. There is also Labour for a Green New Deal, working in the Labour Party and trade unions.

The anti-nuclear power movement was first active in the 1970s and 1980s. [17] The Stop Nuclear Power Network was formed in 2008. It lists groups in the UK and abroad. There has been significant organised opposition to the planned new Hinkley Point C nuclear power station in Somerset since 2011. Stop New Nuclear, a campaign to stop new nuclear power stations has been active since at least 2011. No 2 Nuclear Power looks to of been reporting on the UK nuclear industry since 2017.

The anti-fracking movement formed and became very active in the 2010s. Fracking is shorthand for hydraulic fracturing, which is a form of unconventional gas extraction that was proposed for the UK. Frack Off is a grassroots direct action campaign that formed in 2011. It lists regional and local groups on its website. Through the 2010s there were several anti-fracking camps near to proposed drill site, organised by local communities and supported by anti-fracking activists. The first was Balcombe in Sussex. Reclaim the Power formed in the early 2010s and carried out several direct actions against fracking sites and other environmentally destructive energy infrastructure. Here is a report on the anti-fracking movement from 2013.

The government announced it would be halting fracking in 2019.

Here is an academic article on environmental activism carried out by young people in the early 2010s. [18]

Here is a report on the UK climate movement in 2014. Here is a report on the 2015 COP21 climate march. Art Not Oil is a campaign since 2004 and become a coalition in 2013 with several member groups. There is also the Fossil Free Culture movement active since 2017.

Extinction Rebellion (XR) was formed in 2018 to use direct action to stop climate change. It organised several large demonstrations and protests, blocking roads in London from 2018 onwards. It has local groups around the UK and is spread internationally. Here is a constructively critical article on XR from someone that was involved in XR’s early days. Insulate Britain is an offshoot of XR, formed in 2021 and blocks roads calling for the insulations of homes.

In 2019 the School Strike for Climate (also known variously as Fridays for Future (FFF), Youth for Climate, Climate Strike or Youth Strike for Climate) saw school students taking Fridays off school internationally, demanding action on climate change. Here is a list of protests internationally, with many in the UK. Here is a report of youth strikes around the world in September 2012.

Earth Strike formed in 2018 and called for a global climate strike in September 2019 to disrupt capitalism and get action on climate change.

This article reports on the high levels of UK public concerns about the environment in 2019 following XR and UK School Strike for Climate protests.

A new high-speed railway, High Speed 2 (HS2) was given the go-ahead by the UK government in the early 2010s. The line will run from London to Birmingham, then split, with one line going to Manchester and another to the northeast. A large amount of countryside and woodlands is being destroyed in its construction. Read here and here on opposition to it. I’m aware of two campaigns against HS2: StopHS2 and HS2 Rebellion.

Stop Ecocide International was founded in the UK in 2017 to campaign to make ecocide an international crime. Campaigning for the rights of nature started in 2019. Campaigning and direct action protests on-air pollution in the UK started in 2017. [19]

The climate action network was formed in 2020 with over 200 local groups around the UK. [20]

Just Stop Oil campaign to target petrol stations, football games, fuel depots and refineries to demand an end to fossil fuel investment. [21]

Climate polling in 2022 shows that the public wants more action on climate.

Here is a list of climate groups in 2022.

Feminist/Women’s Movement

The feminist movement is generally divided into four waves. This article describes protofeminism from Ancient Greece to the 1700s. This Wikipedia page gives a history of liberal feminism and legislative achievements from 1800 to the present.

For an international history of women’s involvement in revolutions, rebellions and social movements from the eighteenth century to the end of the twentieth century see ‘Women in Movement: Feminism and Social Action’ by Sheila Rowbotham. And the Institute of Development Studies 2013 ‘Gender and Social Movements Overview Report‘.

Two books give a detailed history of the women’s movement in Britain in the twentieth century: ‘Women and the Women’s Movement in Britain, 1914–1999’ by Martin Pugh and ‘Women in Britain since 1900’ by Sue Bruley.

First wave of the feminist movement

This started in the mid-eighteenth century until the passing of the two Representation of the People Acts in 1918 and 1928. The women’s suffrage movement was a struggle for women’s right to vote. It became a national movement in the late nineteenth century with the formation of the National Society for Women’s Suffrage in 1872 and later the more influential National Union of Women’s Suffrage Societies (NUWSS). The militant part of the campaign began in 1903 with the formation of the Women’s Social and Political Union (WSPU). The militant suffragette campaign was suspended during the First World War. Then in 1918, the Representation of the People Act 1918 gave the vote to all men and all women over the age of 30 who met minimum property qualifications. This extended the franchise by 5.6 million men and 8.4 million women. Then in 1928, the Representation of the People (Equal Franchise) Act was passed, giving the vote to all women over the age of 21 on equal terms with men. [22]

The campaign for abortion law reform began in the 1930s and was achieved in the 1960s. Following the 1960s these abortion rights were under threat so campaigning continued. [23]

Second wave feminism

The second wave of the feminist/women’s movement in Britain was active from the 1960s to the 1980s. It is also known as the women’s liberation movement and demanded ‘social, sexual and reproductive liberation’ [24] Nationally there were demonstrations, conferences, journal publications, direct action at the Miss World Contest, informal networks of activists. Its activities varied depending on location as it mainly operated through local and small groups. At the local level, various activities were taking place over several issues: women-led female worker rights campaigns for equal pay with men and union recognition, consciousnesses raising groups, local publications, local authority lobbying for better childcare facilities, health service lobbying for better abortion and family planning services, family allowances, the establishment of women’s centres, help and advice lines, defacing of sexist advertising, picketing of clubs that barred women, and setting up of women’s refuges for women suffering domestic violence. [25] In the 1970’s the black women’s movement formed and brought activists together through conferences, nationwide campaigns and a newsletter. [26]

For a history of the women’s liberation movement in the 1960s and 1970s see pages 64-78 in ‘British Social Movements Since 1945: Sex, Colour, Peace and Power’ by Adam Lent, and pages 111-13 in ‘Social Movements in Britain’ by Paul Byrne.

Byrne describes how by the mid-1970s the women’s movement split into four perspectives or traditions: liberal feminism for equal rights; socialist feminism focused on women’s oppression due to capitalism; radical feminists saw patriarchy as the cause of women’s disadvantage; black feminists argued that the broader feminist or women’s movement was for white women’s movement and black women faced problems that white women did not [27]

The 1980s saw women involved in mass collective action as part of Women against Pit Closures. There was Greenham Common Women’s Peace Camp starting in 1981. The 1980s also saw an anti-pornography campaign that lobbied parliament and the media, and also organised demonstrations and picketing of shops selling pornographic magazines. [28]

The late 1980s saw attempts in parliament to reduce the 28 week limit on abortion. This resulted in different groups in the women’s movement putting their differences aside and working together to organise a national demonstration. [29]

The 1980s saw women working to increase their representation within the Labour Party and by the end of the 1980s had succeeded. A Shadow Ministry for Women was established. The 1990 Annual Conference agree that in 10 years at least 40 per cent of all representatives on all internal policy-making bodies would be women. Into the early 1990s, women were to be included in all MP candidate shortlists. [30]

Third wave feminism

The international women’s movement changed again in the 1990s with third wave feminism. Its ideological focus was on a post-structuralist interpretation of gender and sexuality – arguing that male-female gender binaries maintained the power of dominant groups so worked to deconstruct them. The issues it focused on included: violence against women; reproductive rights; reclaiming of derogatory terms; sexual liberation in terms of gender and sexual identity; intersexuality in terms of race, social class and transgender rights.

For the UK, there do seem to be issues of separating UK and US third wave feminism, in terms of how the ideas are different and that it arrived later in the UK. There also seems to be a conflation between third wave feminism in the UK and postfeminism. Postfeminism is described as part of the neoliberal agenda “a depoliticised celebration of women’s perceived social and economic emancipation fused with an unproblematic sexualised femininity.” Examples of this include the Spice Girls and ladette culture. And also the aspect of popular culture that results in the ‘I’m not a feminist but…’ attitude of many young women. [31]

Fourth wave feminism

Some argue there is a fourth global wave of feminism that started in 2011 and celebrates all cultures, is the most intersectional, inclusive and gender-fluid wave yet. Its activities have been focused online via social media, blogs, viral videos, collectives and protests against violence against women, rape culture sexual harassment and assault, domestic violence, period poverty, paternity leave and equal pay. Groups and campaigns focus on everyday sexism, anti-female genital mutilation (FGM), Black Lives Matter, exposing endemic sexual assault across multiple industries with the Me Too movement and Time’s Up movement. It also explores how patriarchal oppression is damaging to men. [32] There was also some success in 2015 in stopping The Sun newspaper from printing pictures of nude models. [33]

In Northern Ireland in 2019, pro-choice feminists successfully campaigned for the decriminalisation of abortion.

Sisters Uncut is a direct action group that was formed in 2014, to oppose cuts in the UK government’s services for domestic violence victims. “The group identify as intersectional feminists, and is open to women (including trans and intersex women), nonbinary, agender and gender variant people. The group aims to organise non-hierarchically and uses consensus decision-making. Sisters Uncut originated in London but has regional groups throughout the UK including Manchester and Leeds.” [34]

The dataset for Political protests in Britain,1985-2019, lists several protests between 2006-2019.

International Women’s Day has been held on March 8 since 2010 to celebrate the social, economic, cultural and political achievements of women. It also aims to raise awareness about women’s equality, lobby for accelerated gender parity and fundraise for female-focused charities. As part of the Global Women’s Strike, the Women’s Strike in Britain started organising demonstrations in 2018 in London and elsewhere around the UK to bring women together to refuse to do all the work that women do – whether paid work in offices and factories or unpaid domestic work in homes, communities and bedrooms. [35]

Endnotes

  1. Peter Rawcliffe Environmental Pressure Groups in Transition 1999; https://www.climatejustcollective.co.uk/origins-of-the-british-environment-movement; https://www.climatejustcollective.co.uk/origins-of-the-british-environment-movement-part-2; https://www.climatejustcollective.co.uk/origins-of-the-british-environment-movement-part-3; 2005 Transnational Protest and Global Activism, Donatella della Porta and Sidney Tarrow CH2; http://nrl.northumbria.ac.uk/21603/; Social Movements: The Key Concepts, Graeme Chesters and Ian Welsh p74; Social Movements in Britain, Paul Byrne, 1997, CH8; NGOs in Contemporary Britain Non-state Actors in Society and Politics since 1945 by Nick Crowson, Matthew Hilton, James McKay, CH11; https://www.yourarticlelibrary.com/notes/history-notes/history-of-the-environmental-movement-in-uk/39688; Mapping the environmental third sector in England 2013 https://www.researchgate.net/publication/299450773_Mapping_the_environmental_third_sector_in_England; The British environmental movement: organisational field and network of organisations 2000 https://www.researchgate.net/publication/255612869_The_British_Environmental_Movement_Organisational_Field_and_Network_of_Organisations
  2. The British environmental movement: organisational field and network of organisations 2000 https://www.researchgate.net/publication/255612869_The_British_Environmental_Movement_Organisational_Field_and_Network_of_Organisations
  3. It merged the National Footpaths Society in 1899, becoming the Commons and Footpaths Preservation Society. It was later renamed the Commons, Open Spaces and Footpaths Preservation Society.
  4. https://www.climatejustcollective.co.uk/origins-of-the-british-environment-movement
  5. https://nrl.northumbria.ac.uk/id/eprint/21603/1/wilson.mark_phd.pdf p315-16
  6. Social Movements in Britain, Paul Byrne, p130, https://1lib.at/book/17742770/857fa2
  7. https://nrl.northumbria.ac.uk/id/eprint/21603/1/wilson.mark_phd.pdf p317
  8. Social Movements in Britain, Paul Byrne, p131, https://1lib.at/book/17742770/857fa2
  9. Bryne gives a history of Friends of the Earth and Greenpeace between the 1970s and 1990s, Social Movements in Britain Paul Byrne p131-145, https://1lib.at/book/17742770/857fa2. Also see FoE in Social Movements: The Key Concepts, Graeme Chesters and Ian Welsh p84. And Greenpeace in Social Movements: The Key Concepts, Graeme Chesters and Ian Welsh p97
  10. p211 NGOs in Contemporary Britain Non-state Actors in Society and Politics since 1945 by Nick Crowson, Matthew Hilton, James McKay
  11. p4 https://www.ciht.org.uk/media/8065/newcastle_central_motorway.pdf
  12. p211 NGOs in Contemporary Britain Non-state Actors in Society and Politics since 1945 by Nick Crowson, Matthew Hilton, James McKay, CH 11; Environmental NGOs and the Environmental Movement in England, Christopher Rootes
  13. British Social Movements since 1945, Adam Lent, p218
  14. p213 NGOs in Contemporary Britain Non-state Actors in Society and Politics since 1945 by Nick Crowson, Matthew Hilton, James McKay, CH 11; Environmental NGOs and the Environmental Movement in England, Christopher Rootes
  15. Earth First:Anti-Road Movement Hardcover – 3 Jun. 1999 by Derek Wall; Social Movements: The Key Concepts, Graeme Chesters and Ian Welsh p66; https://www.thegreenfuse.org/protest/; Storming the Millennium: The New Politics of Change Paperback – 11 Feb 1999 by Tim Jordan
  16. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rising_Tide_UK, https://www.risingtide.org.uk
  17. 1970s/80s FoE Social Movements in Britain, Paul Byrne, p135-6; 1980s https://stopnewnuclear.org.uk/past-actions
  18. The Nature of environmental activism among young people in Britain 2013, https://www.researchgate.net/publication/281905886_The_Nature_of_environmental_activism_among_young_people_in_Britain
  19. https://realmedia.press/watch-stop-killing-londoners-action-report/, https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2019/dec/09/extinction-rebellion-stages-air-pollution-protest-in-london, https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2019/jun/14/extinction-rebellion-protesters-stop-rush-hour-traffic-london-lewisham, https://www.alamy.com/stock-photo/air-pollution-protest-london.html, https://www.doctorsforxr.com/news/health-march-press-release, https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-england-london-56372704, https://www.itv.com/news/westcountry/2022-03-08/activists-deflate-tyres-of-suvs-in-bristol-in-climate-protest
  20. https://theecologist.org/2020/jul/21/climate-action-network-grows-200-groups, https://takeclimateaction.uk/join
  21. https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2022/feb/14/just-stop-oil-activist-direct-action-against-uk-oil-infrastructure-target-petrol-stations-depots-refineries, https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/newsbeat-60795041
  22. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Women%27s_suffrage_in_the_United_Kingdom
  23. http://abortionrights.org.uk/history-of-abortion-law-in-the-uk/; The abortion law reform 1930s-1960s CH3 in NGOs in Contemporary Britain Non-state Actors in Society and Politics since 1945 by Nick Crowson, Matthew Hilton, James McKay
  24. https://www.standard.co.uk/lifestyle/london-life/international-womens-day-a-comprehensive-guide-to-the-feminist-waves-a3780436.html.
  25. British Social Movements since 1945, p64-78
  26. British Social Movements since 1945, Paul Byrne, p76-78, p154-58
  27. British Social Movements since 1945, Paul Byrne p114-17
  28. British Social Movements since 1945, Paul Byrne, p118)
  29. British Social Movements since 1945, Paul Byrne, p119)
  30. British Social Movements since 1945, Paul Byrne, p120-23, British social movements since 1945, Adam Lent, CH6
  31. https://pureportal.coventry.ac.uk/files/12570762/navigatingcomb.pdf
  32. https://www.standard.co.uk/lifestyle/london-life/international-womens-day-a-comprehensive-guide-to-the-feminist-waves-a3780436.html
  33. https://nymag.com/intelligencer/2015/01/history-of-the-suns-controversial-page-3.html
  34. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sisters_Uncut
  35. videos on facebook page https://www.facebook.com/womenstrike.uk/videos, 2018 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/International_Women%27s_Strike#Britain, 2020 https://freedomnews.org.uk/2020/03/10/report-on-international-womens-day-london-2/, 2022 https://uk.news.yahoo.com/womens-strike-assembly-over-londons-190000337.html

P { margin-bottom: 0.21cm }